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This paper is an extension of a subject which was developed in India and presented for the first time at the 'Indira Gandhi National Centre of the Arts', New Delhi, under the title 'The urban-rural Dichotomy', which figures now as subtitle. It is an extension in the sense that it uses the urban-rural dichotomy as a platform to show the potential to reconstruct the evolution of early civilizations in new ways using rural space in an extended way as space of hominization, in which the structural conditions for sedentary life and agriculture were developed. Since these structural conditions, or topo-semantic cyclically renewed territorial constitutions, were not of a durable character, they did not show in the archaeological method. Thus, the elaborate forms of temples and of other theocratic arrangements produced the impression that early cultures suddently and with great spiritual power 'invented high culture'. But, in fact the prototypes of theocratic constitutions as we can see them on the evolved state level, were just copied or continued from pre-dynastic village cultures and monumentalized into durable forms. Consequently, we gain an entirely new - and highly critical - perspective on the problem of the origins of civilizations. In its present form the paper was part of two guest lectures held at the department of anthropology at the University of Zagreb, Croatia, at the end of May 2005. The paper was preceded by a first part which presented a summary of the materials supporting the approach. This first part is omitted here, because all these prerequisites can be found in our web-site (Bibliography see:

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